Sunday, 26 October 2014
|The Lionfish which was previously unknown to America is now found from Rhode Island to Belize.|
PHOTO BY CLAUDIA NEUNER
|PHOTO BY ANTOIE N' YEURT|
|PHOTO BY USFWS|
The Zebra mussels were accidentally introduced by cargo ships in the North American Great Lakes from the Black Sea. Many marine species are stowed away in ship ballast and get released at the ships' destination. In the case of the Zebra mussels, it multiplied rapidly and staved out the Great Lake's native mussels species and got in the way of man made structures (e.g factory pipes and ships rudders). It has further spread to Canada and Mexico and a lot of money is spent annually to remove the species.
Cotton, K.I. 2005. . [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/danoff-burg/invasion_bio/inv_spp_summ/Caulerpa_taxifolia.htm. [Accessed 27 October 14]
Ocean portal. 2014. . [ONLINE] Available at:http://ocean.si.edu/ocean-news/5-invasive-species-you-should-know. [Accessed 27 October 14].
National geographic. 2014. . [ONLINE] Available at:http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/critical-issues-marine-invasive-species/. [Accessed 27 October 14].
Friday, 24 October 2014
PHOTO BY ALAMY
Furthermore, as mentioned earlier posts, increase in carbon dioxide results to ocean acidification which leads to shells dissolving in the more acidic water. Likewise for corals, they are unable to absorb the calcium carbonate needed for their skeleton, and in the acidic water, the skeleton which supports coral reefs will dissolve.
PHOTO BY HALL-SPENCER ET AL. 2008
Unhealthy corals with their skeleton structure partially destroyed
PHOTO BY HALL-SPENCER ET AL. 2008
Thursday, 23 October 2014
|PHOTO FROM WALL321.COM|
The urchin on the left is gown in carbon dioxide water rich water whereas the the one on the right is gown in normal conditions (it is healthier with normal spines).PHOTO BY TOM KLEINDINST
|American lobster grown in high carbon dioxide waters (right) grew larger and heavier shell as compared to those grown in normal conditions (left)|
PHOTO BY JUSTIN RIES
As a result, ocean acidification will cause some species to thrive and benefit over others. The main concern is for species that are unable to adapt well to the change in ocean's acidity.
" Given the complex relationships that exist among benthic marine organisms", said Ries, " it is difficult to predict how even subtle changes in organisms' abilities to calcify will ultimately work their way through these ecosystems."
This blog post is based on the report 'Ocean acidification: a risky shell game'
WHOI, 2010. Ocean acidification: a risky shell game. , [Online]. 48 (1), 6-7. Available at: http://www.whoi.edu/cms/files/OceanAcid_68964.pdf [Accessed 23 October 2014].
Saturday, 18 October 2014
|Carbon dioxide given off by vehicles, power plants and other human sources gas combines with seawater to form.|
ILLUSTRATION BY SARAH YOUNGGUIST
Ocean acidification, also known as "global warming's evil twin", it is a direct consequence of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, the only difference is that we do not feel or see the impacts as it is happening underwater. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is absorbed into the ocean and is converted into carbonic acid which lowers the ocean pH. This has been implicated in having adverse impacts on vertebrates, molluscs, corals and crustaceans (Wittmann and Pörtner, 2013), and it has also been suggest to have future impacts on fisheries (Cooley and Doney, 2009), food security (UNEP, 2010), sustainable development (UN-DESA, 2009). Subsequent blog post will talk about the impacts of ocean acidification on marine life.
Wittmann, A.C. & Pörtner, H. (2013) Sensitivities of extant animal taxa to ocean acidification. Nature Climate Change. [Online] 3 (8). p. 995–1001. Available from: http://www.iaea.org/ocean-acidification/download/9_Data%20Management/DMS%20pres/OA%20database_as_neededHPshort.pdf. [Accessed: 25 September 2014].
Cooley, S.R. & Doney, S.C. (2009) Anticipating ocean acidification's economic consequences for commercial fisheries. Environmental Research Letters. [Online] 4 (2), 024007. Available from: http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/4/2/024007/fulltext/. [Accessed: 26 September 2014].
UNEP. (2010) Environmental Consequences of Ocean Acidification: A Threat to Food Security. UNEP Emerging Issues. United Nations Environment Programme. Nairobi: Kenya. Available from: http://www.unep.org/dewa/Portals/67/pdf/Ocean_Acidification.pdf. [Accessed: 26 September 2014].
UN-DESA. (2009) Ocean Acidification: A Hidden Risk for Sustainable Development. Copenhagen Policy Brief. [Online] 1. p. 1-4. Available from: http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/cop15_policy_brief_1.pdf. [Accessed: 26 September 2014].
Saturday, 11 October 2014
PHOTO BY CALEK/ FOTOLIA
PHOTO BY OCEAN PLANET
Earth Talk. 2011. . [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/cyanide-fishing/. [Accessed 12 October 14].
Karen K. W. MAK, Hideshi YANASE, and Reinhard RENNEBERG. 2005. Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors. Biosensors & bioelectronics. Vol. 20, No. 12, pp. 2581-2593.
Dynamite fishingPHOTO FROM TRANSPARENTSEA
A 1 litre coca-cola bottle filled with explosive materials found near Capone island
PHOTO BY DIVEGALLERY
|PHOTO BY MARCOS CHRISTATO|
Sea Shepherd. 2014. . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.seashepherd.org/reef-defense/destructive-fishing.html. [Accessed 12 October 14].